Offshore environmental aspects

H.J. Lindeboom*, S. Degraer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)


The number of offshore wind farms (OWFs) is increasing rapidly, leading to questions about the cumulative environmental impact of such farms. The major impacts are caused by the noise produced in the building phase, the new hard substratum, the moving rotor blades, possible underwater noise in the production phase and the exclusion of fisheries. Danish, Dutch, British, German and Belgium monitoring programmes in individual wind farms have shown, in general, an increase in biodiversity due to the hard substratum, as well as changes in benthic and fish fauna due to the presence of the foundations and further away due to exclusion of fisheries and attraction or avoidance by some bird species or sea mammals. These effects can be qualified as partly negative, partly positive and partly unknown or so far unclear. In particular, the cumulative effects of the increasing number of wind farms need further attention. Negative effects of wind farms include effects of noise on sea mammals and possibly fish, avoidance behaviour by some bird species, and bird and bat collisions with turning rotor blades. If OWFs want to be real suppliers of green energy, ways to mitigate the negative effects need further research and development of innovative techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLong-term research challenges in wind energy
Subtitle of host publicationa research agenda by the European Academy of Wind Energy
EditorsGijs van Kuik, Joachim Peinke
PublisherSpringer International Publishing Switzerland
ISBN (Electronic)9783319469195
ISBN (Print)9783319469188
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Publication series

NameResearch Topics in Wind Energy
ISSN (Print)2196-7806
ISSN (Electronic)2196-7814

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