Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a large number of wild and farmed aquatic animals collected in the Netherlands

Effrosyni Zafeiraki, Wouter A. Gebbink, Ron L.A.P. Hoogenboom, Michiel Kotterman, Christiaan Kwadijk, Emmanouil Dassenakis, Stefan P.J. van Leeuwen

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Abstract

A range of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was analysed in marine fish, farmed fish, crustaceans, bivalves and European eel caught in (mostly) Dutch waters, or purchased at Dutch markets (approximately 250 samples, collected between 2012 and 2018). ΣPFAS levels were highest in eels collected from rivers and lakes (average 43.6 ng/g and max 172 ng/g), followed by shrimps collected near the Dutch coast (average 6.7 and max. 33 ng/g ww), and seabass (average 4.5 and max. 9.4 ng/g ww). Most of the farmed fish (e.g. trout, catfish, turbot, salmon, tilapia, pangasius) were among the lowest contaminated samples in this study (averages ranged from 0.06 to 1.5 ng/g ww). Geographically, levels in marine fish from the northern North Sea (e.g. haddock, whiting, herring) were lower than in the central and southern North Sea (e.g. cod and flatfish). Concerning eel, no substantial geographical differences were found (apart from two distinct locations). The contamination pattern was similar in all species, where PFOS mostly dominated the profile, and other long-chain PFASs being frequently detected. Short-chain PFASs were rarely found. PFOS concentrations in eel varied from 3.3 ng/g (close to the North Sea) to 67 ng/g ww in eel caught from Ghent-Terneuzen canal. The majority of detected PFOS levels in eels (93%) and 1 shrimp sample from Eems-Dollard exceeded the EU Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for surface water of 9.1 μg/kg ww. Other samples (e.g. shrimps, bivalves, flounder), subject to the EQS, did not exceed this level.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)415-423
JournalChemosphere
Volume232
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

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Eels
eel
Netherlands
Fish
Animals
North Sea
Fishes
Flatfishes
Bivalvia
fish
bivalve
Canals
Surface waters
Flounder
Coastal zones
Lakes
Tilapia
Gadiformes
Catfishes
Contamination

Keywords

  • PFOS
  • PFOA
  • eel
  • Fish food safety
  • EQS

Cite this

@article{cfcd3f94836643e78885e6a3e8b12927,
title = "Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a large number of wild and farmed aquatic animals collected in the Netherlands",
abstract = "A range of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was analysed in marine fish, farmed fish, crustaceans, bivalves and European eel caught in (mostly) Dutch waters, or purchased at Dutch markets (approximately 250 samples, collected between 2012 and 2018). ΣPFAS levels were highest in eels collected from rivers and lakes (average 43.6 ng/g and max 172 ng/g), followed by shrimps collected near the Dutch coast (average 6.7 and max. 33 ng/g ww), and seabass (average 4.5 and max. 9.4 ng/g ww). Most of the farmed fish (e.g. trout, catfish, turbot, salmon, tilapia, pangasius) were among the lowest contaminated samples in this study (averages ranged from 0.06 to 1.5 ng/g ww). Geographically, levels in marine fish from the northern North Sea (e.g. haddock, whiting, herring) were lower than in the central and southern North Sea (e.g. cod and flatfish). Concerning eel, no substantial geographical differences were found (apart from two distinct locations). The contamination pattern was similar in all species, where PFOS mostly dominated the profile, and other long-chain PFASs being frequently detected. Short-chain PFASs were rarely found. PFOS concentrations in eel varied from 3.3 ng/g (close to the North Sea) to 67 ng/g ww in eel caught from Ghent-Terneuzen canal. The majority of detected PFOS levels in eels (93{\%}) and 1 shrimp sample from Eems-Dollard exceeded the EU Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for surface water of 9.1 μg/kg ww. Other samples (e.g. shrimps, bivalves, flounder), subject to the EQS, did not exceed this level.",
keywords = "PFOS, PFOA, eel, Fish food safety, EQS",
author = "Effrosyni Zafeiraki and Gebbink, {Wouter A.} and Hoogenboom, {Ron L.A.P.} and Michiel Kotterman and Christiaan Kwadijk and Emmanouil Dassenakis and {van Leeuwen}, {Stefan P.J.}",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.200",
language = "English",
volume = "232",
pages = "415--423",
journal = "Chemosphere",
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Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a large number of wild and farmed aquatic animals collected in the Netherlands. / Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Gebbink, Wouter A.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Kotterman, Michiel; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; van Leeuwen, Stefan P.J.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 232, 10.2019, p. 415-423.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a large number of wild and farmed aquatic animals collected in the Netherlands

AU - Zafeiraki, Effrosyni

AU - Gebbink, Wouter A.

AU - Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.

AU - Kotterman, Michiel

AU - Kwadijk, Christiaan

AU - Dassenakis, Emmanouil

AU - van Leeuwen, Stefan P.J.

PY - 2019/10

Y1 - 2019/10

N2 - A range of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was analysed in marine fish, farmed fish, crustaceans, bivalves and European eel caught in (mostly) Dutch waters, or purchased at Dutch markets (approximately 250 samples, collected between 2012 and 2018). ΣPFAS levels were highest in eels collected from rivers and lakes (average 43.6 ng/g and max 172 ng/g), followed by shrimps collected near the Dutch coast (average 6.7 and max. 33 ng/g ww), and seabass (average 4.5 and max. 9.4 ng/g ww). Most of the farmed fish (e.g. trout, catfish, turbot, salmon, tilapia, pangasius) were among the lowest contaminated samples in this study (averages ranged from 0.06 to 1.5 ng/g ww). Geographically, levels in marine fish from the northern North Sea (e.g. haddock, whiting, herring) were lower than in the central and southern North Sea (e.g. cod and flatfish). Concerning eel, no substantial geographical differences were found (apart from two distinct locations). The contamination pattern was similar in all species, where PFOS mostly dominated the profile, and other long-chain PFASs being frequently detected. Short-chain PFASs were rarely found. PFOS concentrations in eel varied from 3.3 ng/g (close to the North Sea) to 67 ng/g ww in eel caught from Ghent-Terneuzen canal. The majority of detected PFOS levels in eels (93%) and 1 shrimp sample from Eems-Dollard exceeded the EU Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for surface water of 9.1 μg/kg ww. Other samples (e.g. shrimps, bivalves, flounder), subject to the EQS, did not exceed this level.

AB - A range of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was analysed in marine fish, farmed fish, crustaceans, bivalves and European eel caught in (mostly) Dutch waters, or purchased at Dutch markets (approximately 250 samples, collected between 2012 and 2018). ΣPFAS levels were highest in eels collected from rivers and lakes (average 43.6 ng/g and max 172 ng/g), followed by shrimps collected near the Dutch coast (average 6.7 and max. 33 ng/g ww), and seabass (average 4.5 and max. 9.4 ng/g ww). Most of the farmed fish (e.g. trout, catfish, turbot, salmon, tilapia, pangasius) were among the lowest contaminated samples in this study (averages ranged from 0.06 to 1.5 ng/g ww). Geographically, levels in marine fish from the northern North Sea (e.g. haddock, whiting, herring) were lower than in the central and southern North Sea (e.g. cod and flatfish). Concerning eel, no substantial geographical differences were found (apart from two distinct locations). The contamination pattern was similar in all species, where PFOS mostly dominated the profile, and other long-chain PFASs being frequently detected. Short-chain PFASs were rarely found. PFOS concentrations in eel varied from 3.3 ng/g (close to the North Sea) to 67 ng/g ww in eel caught from Ghent-Terneuzen canal. The majority of detected PFOS levels in eels (93%) and 1 shrimp sample from Eems-Dollard exceeded the EU Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for surface water of 9.1 μg/kg ww. Other samples (e.g. shrimps, bivalves, flounder), subject to the EQS, did not exceed this level.

KW - PFOS

KW - PFOA

KW - eel

KW - Fish food safety

KW - EQS

U2 - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.200

DO - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.200

M3 - Article

VL - 232

SP - 415

EP - 423

JO - Chemosphere

JF - Chemosphere

SN - 0045-6535

ER -