Nutritional Deficiencies 3 Years After Sleeve Gastrectomy Can Be Limited by a Specialized Multivitamin Supplement

Laura Heusschen*, Agnes A.M. Berendsen, Laura N. Deden, Eric J. Hazebroek, Edo O. Aarts

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: Lifelong daily multivitamin supplementation is highly recommended after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Based on previous research, a specialized multivitamin supplement (MVS) for SG patients was developed and optimized (WLS Optimum 1.0 and 2.0). This study presents its mid-term effectives and compares micronutrient status of SG patients using this specialized MVS to users of standard MVS (sMVS) and non-users of multivitamin supplementation during the first three years post-surgery. Materials and Methods: Of the 226 participants that were included at baseline, yearly follow-up blood tests were completed by 193 participants (85%) at 12 months, 176 participants (78%) at 24 months, and 140 participants (62%) at 36 months of follow-up. At each time point, participants were divided into four groups: (1) Optimum 1.0, (2) Optimum 2.0, (3) sMVS, and (4) non-users. Serum concentrations (linear mixed-effects models) and the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (chi-square tests) during follow-up were compared between the groups. Results: Users of specialized MVS (Optimum 1.0 and 2.0) had higher serum concentrations of hemoglobin, folic acid, and vitamin D compared to sMVS users and non-users during follow-up. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and (corrected) calcium were also higher in specialized MVS users than in non-users. Overall, fewer deficiencies for folic acid and vitamin D were observed in the Optimum groups. Conclusion: Although the perfect multivitamin supplement for all SG patients does not exist, WLS Optimum was more effective in sustaining normal serum concentrations than standard, over-the-counter supplementation. Non-users of MVS presented with most micronutrient deficiencies and will evidently develop poor nutritional status on the longer term. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3561-3570
JournalObesity Surgery
Issue number11
Early online date26 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Bariatric Surgery
  • Deficiencies
  • Metabolic Surgery
  • Micronutrients
  • Minerals
  • SG
  • Sleeve Gastrectomy
  • Supplementation
  • Vitamins


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