Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study, a prospective study on dietary determinants and cardiometabolic health in Dutch adults

Elske Maria Brouwer-Brolsma, Linde Van Lee, Martinette T. Streppel, Diewertje Sluik, Anne M. Van De Wiel, Jeanne H.M. De Vries, Anouk Geelen, Edith J.M. Feskens*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


During the past decades, the number of people with cardiometabolic conditions substantially increased. To identify dietary factors that may be responsible for this increase in cardiometabolic conditions, the Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study was initiated. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the study design and baseline characteristics of the NQplus population.
The NQplus study is a prospective cohort study among 2048 Dutch men (52%) and women (48%) aged 20–70 years. Findings to date At baseline, we assessed habitual dietary intake, conducted physical examinations (measuring, eg, anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, advanced glycation end product accumulation, cognitive performance), collected blood and 24-hour urine and administered a variety of validated demographic, health and lifestyle questionnaires. Participants had a mean BMI of 26.0±4.2 kg/m2, were mostly highly educated (63%), married or having a registered partnership (72%) and having a paid job (72%). Estimated daily energy and macronutrient intakes (mean±SD) were 8581±2531 kJ, 15±2energy (en%) of protein, 43±6 en% of carbohydrates, 36±5 en% of fat and 11±13 g of alcohol. Mean systolic blood pressure was 126±15 mm Hg, total cholesterol 5.3±1.1 mmol/L and haemoglobin A1c 36±5 mmol/mol. A total of 24% of the participants reported to be diagnosed with hypertension, 18% with hypercholesterolaemia and 4% with diabetes mellitus. All measurements were repeated after 1 and 2 years of follow-up.
Future plans
We endeavour to continue measurements on the long-term. Moreover, dietary assessment methods used in the NQplus study will be extensively validated, that is, Food Frequency Questionnaires, 24-hour recalls and urinary and blood biomarkers of exposure. As such, the NQplus study will provide a unique opportunity to study many cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between diet and cardiometabolic health outcomes using the best dietary assessment methods available so far.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere020228
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018


  • cardio-metabolic health
  • cohort
  • mental health
  • nutritional biomarker
  • nutritional epidemiology
  • self-reported dietary assessment methods


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