Nutrient Removal and Biomass Production in an Outdoor Pilot-Scale Phototrophic Biofilm Reactor for Effluent Polishing

N.C. Boelee, M. Janssen, H. Temmink, R. Shrestha, C.J.N. Buisman, R.H. Wijffels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An innovative pilot-scale phototrophic biofilm reactor was evaluated over a 5-month period to determine its capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from Dutch municipal wastewater effluents. The areal biomass production rate ranged between 2.7 and 4.5 g dry weight/m2/day. The areal nitrogen and phosphorus removal rates averaged 0.13 g N/m2/day and 0.023 g P/m2/day, which are low compared to removal rates achieved in laboratory biofilm reactors. Nutrient removal increased during the day, decreased with decreasing light intensity and no removal occurred during the night. Additional carbon dioxide supply was not requisite as the wastewater was comprised of enough inorganic carbon to sustain microalgal growth. The study was not conclusive for the limiting factor that caused the low nutrient removal rate, possibly the process was limited by light and temperature, in combination with pH increases above pH 9 during the daytime. This pilot-scale study demonstrated that the proposed phototrophic biofilm reactor is not a viable post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluents under Dutch climate conditions. However, the reactor performance may be improved when controlling the pH and the temperatures in the morning. With these adaptations, a phototrophic biofilm reactor could be feasible at lower latitudes with higher irradiance levels.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-422
JournalApplied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Volume172
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • waste water treatment
  • biofilms
  • algae
  • biological water treatment plants
  • phototropism
  • nitrates
  • phosphates
  • waste-water treatment
  • rate algal pond
  • marine-phytoplankton
  • seasonal succession
  • phosphate-uptake
  • nitrogen uptake
  • nitrate uptake
  • phosphorus
  • growth
  • light

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