Normalization genes for quantitative RT-PCR in differentiated Caco-2 cells used for food exposure studies

R.A.M. Vreeburg, S. Bastiaan-Net, J.J. Mes

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    23 Citations (Scopus)


    Exposure of food products to small-intestinal-like Caco-2 cells, combined with a gene expression based response analysis can be a valuable tool to classify potential bioactive effects of food homogenates. In order to study changes in gene expression upon food exposure, a robust set of stably expressed genes is required for normalization. Here we present a set of reference genes suitable for RT-qPCR that has been validated for exposure studies with the intestinal-like Caco-2 cell line. This study identified ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (RPLP0) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as best reference genes. The set can be extended with ß-2-microglobulin (B2M), splicing factor 3A, subunit 1 (SF3A1), and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19 (MRPL19). Food homogenates did provoke responses in the Caco-2 cells, as was demonstrated by changed expression of NAD(P)H Quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), Claudin 4 (CLDN4), Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS2), and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, member 1 (ABCB1) in the same experiment. Results indicate that: i) natural food homogenates can exert effects in Caco-2 cells, and ii) stability in expression of the reference genes is not due to a lack of response of the Caco-2 cells.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)124-129
    JournalFood & Function
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2011


    • intestinal epithelial-cells
    • colon
    • expression
    • culture
    • single
    • cancer


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