Non-target screening reveals the mechanisms responsible for the antagonistic inhibiting effect of the biocides DBNPA and glutaraldehyde on benzoic acid biodegradation

Thomas V. Wagner*, Rick Helmus, Silvana Quiton Tapia, Huub H.M. Rijnaarts, Pim de Voogt, Alette A.M. Langenhoff, John R. Parsons

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The desalination and reuse of discharged cooling tower water (CTW) as feed water for the cooling tower could lower the industrial fresh water withdrawal. A potential pre-treatment method before CTW desalination is the use of constructed wetlands (CWs). Biodegradation is an important removal mechanism in CWs. In the present study, the impact of the biocides 2,2-dibromo-2-cyanoacetamide (DBNPA) and glutaraldehyde on the biodegradation process by CW microorganisms was quantified in batch experiments in which benzoic acid was incubated with realistic CTW biocide concentrations. DBNPA had a stronger negative impact on the biodegradation than glutaraldehyde. The combination of DBNPA and glutaraldehyde had a lower impact on the biodegradation than DBNPA alone. UHPLC-qTOF-MS/MS non-target screening combined with data-analysis script ‘patRoon’ revealed two mechanisms behind this low impact. Firstly, the presence of glutaraldehyde resulted in increased DBNPA transformation to the less toxic transformation product 2-bromo-2-cyanoacetamide (MBNPA) and newly discovered 2,2-dibromopropanediamide. Secondly, the interaction between glutaraldehyde and DBNPA resulted in the formation of new products that were less toxic than DBNPA. The environmental fate and toxicity of these products are still unknown. Nevertheless, their formation can have important implications for the simultaneous use of the biocides DBNPA and glutaraldehyde for a wide array of applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121661
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume386
Early online date10 Nov 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2020

Keywords

  • Biocides
  • Constructed wetlands
  • Cooling tower water
  • Non-target screening

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