Non-linear associations between serum 25-OH vitamin D and indices of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an older population

S.C. van Dijk, E. Sohl, C. Oudshoorn, A.W. Enneman, A.C. Ham, K.M.A. Swart, J.P. van Wijngaarden, E.M. Brouwer, N.L. van der Zwaluw, A.G. Uitterlinden, C.P.G.M. de Groot, R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten, P. Lips, N.M. van Schoor, H.J. Blom, J.M. Geleijnse, E.J.M. Feskens

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Abstract

Background: several studies have been pointing towards a non-linear relationship between serum 25(OH)D and cardiovascular disease. Next to vitamin D deficiency, also higher levels of 25(OH)D have been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the nature of the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and measures of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an elderly population. Design: cross-sectional. Setting/subjects: a subgroup of the B-PROOF study was included to determine associations between serum 25(OH)D and arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis (n = 567, 57% male, age 72.6 ± 5.6 years, mean serum 25(OH)D 54.6 ± 24.1 nmol/l). Methods: carotid intima media thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasonography and pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined with applanation tonometry. Associations were tested using multivariable restricted cubic spline functions and stratified linear regression analysis. Results: the associations between serum 25(OH)D and carotid IMT or PWV were non-linear. Spline functions demonstrated a difference between 25(OH)D deficient and sufficient individuals. In serum 25(OH)D sufficient participants (=50 nmol/l; n = 287), a positive association with IMT and serum 25(OH)D was present (ß 1.24; 95%CI [0.002; 2.473]). PWV levels were slightly lower in vitamin D deficient individuals, but the association with 25(OH)D was not significant. Conclusion: our study demonstrates that associations of serum 25(OH)D and PWV and IMT in an elderly population are not linear. In particular from serum 25(OH)D levels of 50 nmol/l and up, there is a slight increase of IMT with increasing 25(OH)D levels.
LanguageEnglish
Pages136-142
JournalAge and Ageing
Volume44
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Vascular Stiffness
Arteriosclerosis
Vitamin D
Pulse Wave Analysis
Serum
Population
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Vitamin D Deficiency
Manometry
Linear Models
Ultrasonography
Atherosclerosis
Cardiovascular Diseases
Regression Analysis

Keywords

  • nutrition examination survey
  • 3rd national-health
  • cardiovascular-disease
  • blood-pressure
  • d deficiency
  • risk
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin-d
  • hypertension
  • mortality
  • system

Cite this

van Dijk, S.C. ; Sohl, E. ; Oudshoorn, C. ; Enneman, A.W. ; Ham, A.C. ; Swart, K.M.A. ; van Wijngaarden, J.P. ; Brouwer, E.M. ; van der Zwaluw, N.L. ; Uitterlinden, A.G. ; de Groot, C.P.G.M. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Lips, P. ; van Schoor, N.M. ; Blom, H.J. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. / Non-linear associations between serum 25-OH vitamin D and indices of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an older population. In: Age and Ageing. 2015 ; Vol. 44, No. 1. pp. 136-142.
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title = "Non-linear associations between serum 25-OH vitamin D and indices of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an older population",
abstract = "Background: several studies have been pointing towards a non-linear relationship between serum 25(OH)D and cardiovascular disease. Next to vitamin D deficiency, also higher levels of 25(OH)D have been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the nature of the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and measures of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an elderly population. Design: cross-sectional. Setting/subjects: a subgroup of the B-PROOF study was included to determine associations between serum 25(OH)D and arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis (n = 567, 57{\%} male, age 72.6 ± 5.6 years, mean serum 25(OH)D 54.6 ± 24.1 nmol/l). Methods: carotid intima media thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasonography and pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined with applanation tonometry. Associations were tested using multivariable restricted cubic spline functions and stratified linear regression analysis. Results: the associations between serum 25(OH)D and carotid IMT or PWV were non-linear. Spline functions demonstrated a difference between 25(OH)D deficient and sufficient individuals. In serum 25(OH)D sufficient participants (=50 nmol/l; n = 287), a positive association with IMT and serum 25(OH)D was present ({\ss} 1.24; 95{\%}CI [0.002; 2.473]). PWV levels were slightly lower in vitamin D deficient individuals, but the association with 25(OH)D was not significant. Conclusion: our study demonstrates that associations of serum 25(OH)D and PWV and IMT in an elderly population are not linear. In particular from serum 25(OH)D levels of 50 nmol/l and up, there is a slight increase of IMT with increasing 25(OH)D levels.",
keywords = "nutrition examination survey, 3rd national-health, cardiovascular-disease, blood-pressure, d deficiency, risk, 25-hydroxyvitamin-d, hypertension, mortality, system",
author = "{van Dijk}, S.C. and E. Sohl and C. Oudshoorn and A.W. Enneman and A.C. Ham and K.M.A. Swart and {van Wijngaarden}, J.P. and E.M. Brouwer and {van der Zwaluw}, N.L. and A.G. Uitterlinden and {de Groot}, C.P.G.M. and R.A.M. Dhonukshe-Rutten and P. Lips and {van Schoor}, N.M. and H.J. Blom and J.M. Geleijnse and E.J.M. Feskens",
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van Dijk, SC, Sohl, E, Oudshoorn, C, Enneman, AW, Ham, AC, Swart, KMA, van Wijngaarden, JP, Brouwer, EM, van der Zwaluw, NL, Uitterlinden, AG, de Groot, CPGM, Dhonukshe-Rutten, RAM, Lips, P, van Schoor, NM, Blom, HJ, Geleijnse, JM & Feskens, EJM 2015, 'Non-linear associations between serum 25-OH vitamin D and indices of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an older population', Age and Ageing, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 136-142. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afu095

Non-linear associations between serum 25-OH vitamin D and indices of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an older population. / van Dijk, S.C.; Sohl, E.; Oudshoorn, C.; Enneman, A.W.; Ham, A.C.; Swart, K.M.A.; van Wijngaarden, J.P.; Brouwer, E.M.; van der Zwaluw, N.L.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Lips, P.; van Schoor, N.M.; Blom, H.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.

In: Age and Ageing, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2015, p. 136-142.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Non-linear associations between serum 25-OH vitamin D and indices of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an older population

AU - van Dijk, S.C.

AU - Sohl, E.

AU - Oudshoorn, C.

AU - Enneman, A.W.

AU - Ham, A.C.

AU - Swart, K.M.A.

AU - van Wijngaarden, J.P.

AU - Brouwer, E.M.

AU - van der Zwaluw, N.L.

AU - Uitterlinden, A.G.

AU - de Groot, C.P.G.M.

AU - Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.

AU - Lips, P.

AU - van Schoor, N.M.

AU - Blom, H.J.

AU - Geleijnse, J.M.

AU - Feskens, E.J.M.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Background: several studies have been pointing towards a non-linear relationship between serum 25(OH)D and cardiovascular disease. Next to vitamin D deficiency, also higher levels of 25(OH)D have been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the nature of the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and measures of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an elderly population. Design: cross-sectional. Setting/subjects: a subgroup of the B-PROOF study was included to determine associations between serum 25(OH)D and arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis (n = 567, 57% male, age 72.6 ± 5.6 years, mean serum 25(OH)D 54.6 ± 24.1 nmol/l). Methods: carotid intima media thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasonography and pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined with applanation tonometry. Associations were tested using multivariable restricted cubic spline functions and stratified linear regression analysis. Results: the associations between serum 25(OH)D and carotid IMT or PWV were non-linear. Spline functions demonstrated a difference between 25(OH)D deficient and sufficient individuals. In serum 25(OH)D sufficient participants (=50 nmol/l; n = 287), a positive association with IMT and serum 25(OH)D was present (ß 1.24; 95%CI [0.002; 2.473]). PWV levels were slightly lower in vitamin D deficient individuals, but the association with 25(OH)D was not significant. Conclusion: our study demonstrates that associations of serum 25(OH)D and PWV and IMT in an elderly population are not linear. In particular from serum 25(OH)D levels of 50 nmol/l and up, there is a slight increase of IMT with increasing 25(OH)D levels.

AB - Background: several studies have been pointing towards a non-linear relationship between serum 25(OH)D and cardiovascular disease. Next to vitamin D deficiency, also higher levels of 25(OH)D have been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the nature of the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and measures of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an elderly population. Design: cross-sectional. Setting/subjects: a subgroup of the B-PROOF study was included to determine associations between serum 25(OH)D and arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis (n = 567, 57% male, age 72.6 ± 5.6 years, mean serum 25(OH)D 54.6 ± 24.1 nmol/l). Methods: carotid intima media thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasonography and pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined with applanation tonometry. Associations were tested using multivariable restricted cubic spline functions and stratified linear regression analysis. Results: the associations between serum 25(OH)D and carotid IMT or PWV were non-linear. Spline functions demonstrated a difference between 25(OH)D deficient and sufficient individuals. In serum 25(OH)D sufficient participants (=50 nmol/l; n = 287), a positive association with IMT and serum 25(OH)D was present (ß 1.24; 95%CI [0.002; 2.473]). PWV levels were slightly lower in vitamin D deficient individuals, but the association with 25(OH)D was not significant. Conclusion: our study demonstrates that associations of serum 25(OH)D and PWV and IMT in an elderly population are not linear. In particular from serum 25(OH)D levels of 50 nmol/l and up, there is a slight increase of IMT with increasing 25(OH)D levels.

KW - nutrition examination survey

KW - 3rd national-health

KW - cardiovascular-disease

KW - blood-pressure

KW - d deficiency

KW - risk

KW - 25-hydroxyvitamin-d

KW - hypertension

KW - mortality

KW - system

U2 - 10.1093/ageing/afu095

DO - 10.1093/ageing/afu095

M3 - Article

VL - 44

SP - 136

EP - 142

JO - Age and Ageing

T2 - Age and Ageing

JF - Age and Ageing

SN - 0002-0729

IS - 1

ER -