Objective: To determine the nutritional importance of non-home prepared foods for men, women and schoolchildren living in two low-income residential areas of Nairobi, and the sources of these non-home prepared foods. Design, setting and subjects: A survey was conducted in Korogocho, a slum area, and Dandora, a low-middle-income residential area. Some 241 men, 254 women and 146 children aged 9 to 14 years were included in the study. Food intake was measured using three 24-hour recalls per individual, with special attention on the sources of all foods consumed. Results: The median proportion of daily energy intake of consumers provided by non-home prepared foods ranged from 13% for schoolchildren in Korogocho to 36% for men in Dandora. The median contribution to fat intake was higher than to energy, but the contributions to iron and vitamin A intakes were lower than to energy intake. Men consumed more non-home prepared foods on weekdays than at the weekend. Intakes of energy and most nutrients were below Kenyan Recommended Daily Intakes in all groups, but similar for consumers and non-consumers. In Korogocho, street foods were the main source of non-home prepared foods. In Dandora, both kiosks and street foods were major sources. Conclusions: Non-home prepared foods are an important source of energy and nutients for men, women and schoolchildren in Nairobi. In Korogocho, street foods, and in Dandora, both kiosks and street foods are the main sources of non-home prepared foods. The adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes does not differ between consumers and non-consumers of non-home prepared foods.