Nitrogenous Compound Utilization and Production of Volatile Organic Compounds among Commercial Wine Yeasts Highlight Strain-Specific Metabolic Diversity

William T. Scott, Oscar Van Mastrigt, David E. Block, Richard A. Notebaart*, Eddy J. Smid*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Genetic background and environmental conditions affect the production of sensory impact compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The relative importance of the strain-specific metabolic capabilities for the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remains unclear. We investigated which amino acids contribute to VOC production and whether amino acid-VOC relations are conserved among yeast strains. Amino acid consumption and production of VOCs during grape juice fermentation was investigated using four commercial wine yeast strains: Elixir, Opale, R2, and Uvaferm. Principal component analysis of the VOC data demonstrated that Uvaferm correlated with ethyl acetate and ethyl hexanoate production, R2 negatively correlated with the acetate esters, and Opale positively correlated with fusel alcohols. Biomass formation was similar for all strains, pointing to metabolic differences in the utilization of nutrients to form VOCs. Partial least-squares linear regression showed that total aroma production is a function of nitrogen utilization (R2 = 0.87). We found that glycine, tyrosine, leucine, and lysine utilization were positively correlated with fusel alcohols and acetate esters. Mechanistic modeling of the yeast metabolic network via parsimonious flux balance analysis and flux enrichment analysis revealed enzymes with crucial roles, such as transaminases and decarboxylases. Our work provides insights in VOC production in wine yeasts.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00485-21
JournalMicrobiology Spectrum
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Sep 2021

Keywords

  • fermentation
  • HS-SPME/GC-MS
  • metabolic modeling
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • volatile organic compounds
  • wine

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