Nitric oxide production and fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis as functional readouts of macrophage activity upon stimulation with inactivated poultry vaccines in vitro

Robin H.G.A. van den Biggelaar, Willem van Eden, Victor P.M.G. Rutten, Christine A. Jansen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Vaccine batches must pass routine quality control to confirm that their ability to induce protection against disease is consistent with batches of proven efficacy from development studies. For poultry vaccines, these tests are often performed in laboratory chickens by vaccination-challenge trials or serological assays. The aim of this study was to investigate innate immune responses against inactivated poultry vaccines and identify candidate immune parameters for in vitro quality tests as alternatives for animal-based quality tests. For this purpose, we set up assays to measure nitric oxide production and phagocytosis by the macrophage-like cell line HD11, upon stimulation with inactivated poultry vaccines for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV). In both assays, macrophages became activated after stimulation with various toll-like receptor agonists. Inactivated poultry vaccines stimulated HD11 cells to produce nitric oxide due to the presence of mineral oil adjuvant. Moreover, inactivated poultry vaccines were found to enhance Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis due to the presence of allantoic fluid in the vaccine antigen preparations. We showed that inactivated poultry vaccines stimulated nitric oxide production and Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by chicken macrophages. Similar to antigen quantification methods, the cell-based assays described here can be used for future assessment of vaccine batch-to-batch consistency. The ability of the assays to determine the immunopotentiating properties of inactivated poultry vaccines provides an additional step in the replacement of current in vivo batch-release quality tests.
Original languageEnglish
Article number332
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalVaccines
Volume8
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Chicken
  • CHIR-AB1
  • HD11 cell line
  • Inactivated vaccines
  • Macrophages
  • Nitric oxide
  • Phagocytosis
  • Vaccine quality control

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