In the paper insight is given in the legislation policy to restrain environmental pollution by pig husbandry, focused on The Netherlands (Mineral Accounting System). Besides, nutritional measures are presented to reduce environmental pollution by lowering excretion of N and P, emphasizing (multi) phase feeding, the use of low protein, synthetic amino acids supplemented diets, phytase and its effect on phosphorus and calcium digestibility, its interaction with phytic acid and proteins, and the environmental impact of the use of phytase in pig diets. Also, nutritional means are indicated to reduce ammonia volatilization from pig operations. It is concluded that nutrition management can substantially contribute to reduction of N and P excretion by pigs, mainly by lowering dietary protein levels, (multi) phase feeding and the use of microbial phytase, and that the use of phytase on a large scale in The Netherlands has a tremendous environmental impact. In 20 years the excretion of P in growing-finishing pigs has more than halved. Ammonia emission from manure of pigs can be reduced substantially by lowering dietary protein content, but also by including additional non-starch polysaccharides in the diet. A very promising method to reduce ammonia emission is to manipulate dietary cation-anion difference, e.g. by adding acidifying salts to the diet, which will lower pH of urine substantially. Further research is desirable. This also applies to determining dietary factors influencing the odour release from manure. Finally, some speculation on the future of pig farming from an environmental viewpoint is presented.
|Journal||Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 1999|
Lenis, N. P., & Jongbloed, A. W. (1999). New technologies in low pollution swine diets: Diet manipulation and use of synthetic amino acids, phytase and phase feeding for reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion and ammonia emission. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 12(2), 305-327.