Bi-directional communication between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and the sympathetic nervous system with the immune system is crucial to ensure homeostasis. Shared use of ligands and especially receptors forms a key component of this bi-directional interaction. Glucocorticoids (GC), the major end products of the HPA-axis differentially modulate immune function. Cytokines, especially interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), ensure immune signalling to the neuroendocrine system. In addition, hormones from leukocyte origin such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and beta-endorphin, as well as centrally synthesised and secreted cytokines, contribute to the communication network.In teleost fish cortisol is the major product of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI)-axis which is the teleost equivalent of the HPA-axis. Moderate and substantial increases in cortisol during stressful circumstances negatively affect B-lymphocytes, whereas rescue of neutrophilic granulocytes may support innate immunity. Recent elucidation of lower vertebrate cytokine sequences has facilitated research into neuroendocrine-immune interactions in teleosts and the first evidence for a significant function of interleukin-1 in the bi-directional communication is discussed.
|Title of host publication||Book of Abstracts XIII Congress of Polish Society of Experimental and Clinical Immunology, Krakow, Loland, 14 - 17 May, 2008|
|Publication status||Published - 2008|
|Event||XIII Congress of Polish Society of Experimental and Clinical Immunology - |
Duration: 14 May 2008 → 17 May 2008
|Conference||XIII Congress of Polish Society of Experimental and Clinical Immunology|
|Period||14/05/08 → 17/05/08|