Nectar-related vs human-related volatiles: behavioural response and choice by female and male Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) between emergence and first feeding

W.A. Foster, W. Takken

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76 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The close association of Anopheles gambiae Giles with humans and its females’ ability to live on human blood alone suggest that females may ignore sources of sugar in favour of human blood as a source of energy. They have limited energy reserves at emergence, and at 27°C both sexes generally die if they do not feed during night 1, 24–36 h after emergence. Food preferences during this critical period were tested by measuring responses to volatiles from honey and soiled socks, which served as surrogates for nectar-related and human-related volatiles in a wind-tunnel olfactometer. Both sexes responded more strongly to honey than to human volatiles, and given a choice, preferred honey over human volatiles. After 5 days of sugar access and maturation, males continued to prefer honey volatiles, whereas females changed behaviour, responding almost exclusively to human volatiles. Night 1 experiments also demonstrated that: (i) females previously having had sugar during the night of emergence responded more strongly to human volatiles; (ii) large-bodied mosquitoes of both sexes responded more strongly to honey than small-bodied ones; and (iii) females were equally responsive to honey in both early and late scotophase but were slightly more responsive to human volatiles in late scotophase. These results indicate that for a female’s first meal, sugar is a viable option and is preferred when nectar-related stimuli are strong. This supports field evidence that sugar-feeding is a significant component of A. gambiae female behaviour.
LanguageEnglish
Pages145-157
JournalBulletin of Entomological Research
Volume94
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Fingerprint

Anopheles gambiae
nectar
eclosion
Culicidae
honey
sugars
scotophase
gender
sugar feeding
olfactometers
wind tunnels
blood
energy
meals (menu)
food choices

Keywords

  • aedes-aegypti diptera
  • sensu-stricto diptera
  • culex nigripalpus mosquitos
  • blood plus sugar
  • malaria mosquito
  • body-size
  • host-seeking
  • human sweat
  • blood/nectar choice
  • olfactory responses

Cite this

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title = "Nectar-related vs human-related volatiles: behavioural response and choice by female and male Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) between emergence and first feeding",
abstract = "The close association of Anopheles gambiae Giles with humans and its females’ ability to live on human blood alone suggest that females may ignore sources of sugar in favour of human blood as a source of energy. They have limited energy reserves at emergence, and at 27°C both sexes generally die if they do not feed during night 1, 24–36 h after emergence. Food preferences during this critical period were tested by measuring responses to volatiles from honey and soiled socks, which served as surrogates for nectar-related and human-related volatiles in a wind-tunnel olfactometer. Both sexes responded more strongly to honey than to human volatiles, and given a choice, preferred honey over human volatiles. After 5 days of sugar access and maturation, males continued to prefer honey volatiles, whereas females changed behaviour, responding almost exclusively to human volatiles. Night 1 experiments also demonstrated that: (i) females previously having had sugar during the night of emergence responded more strongly to human volatiles; (ii) large-bodied mosquitoes of both sexes responded more strongly to honey than small-bodied ones; and (iii) females were equally responsive to honey in both early and late scotophase but were slightly more responsive to human volatiles in late scotophase. These results indicate that for a female’s first meal, sugar is a viable option and is preferred when nectar-related stimuli are strong. This supports field evidence that sugar-feeding is a significant component of A. gambiae female behaviour.",
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T1 - Nectar-related vs human-related volatiles: behavioural response and choice by female and male Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) between emergence and first feeding

AU - Foster, W.A.

AU - Takken, W.

N1 - 2540

PY - 2004

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N2 - The close association of Anopheles gambiae Giles with humans and its females’ ability to live on human blood alone suggest that females may ignore sources of sugar in favour of human blood as a source of energy. They have limited energy reserves at emergence, and at 27°C both sexes generally die if they do not feed during night 1, 24–36 h after emergence. Food preferences during this critical period were tested by measuring responses to volatiles from honey and soiled socks, which served as surrogates for nectar-related and human-related volatiles in a wind-tunnel olfactometer. Both sexes responded more strongly to honey than to human volatiles, and given a choice, preferred honey over human volatiles. After 5 days of sugar access and maturation, males continued to prefer honey volatiles, whereas females changed behaviour, responding almost exclusively to human volatiles. Night 1 experiments also demonstrated that: (i) females previously having had sugar during the night of emergence responded more strongly to human volatiles; (ii) large-bodied mosquitoes of both sexes responded more strongly to honey than small-bodied ones; and (iii) females were equally responsive to honey in both early and late scotophase but were slightly more responsive to human volatiles in late scotophase. These results indicate that for a female’s first meal, sugar is a viable option and is preferred when nectar-related stimuli are strong. This supports field evidence that sugar-feeding is a significant component of A. gambiae female behaviour.

AB - The close association of Anopheles gambiae Giles with humans and its females’ ability to live on human blood alone suggest that females may ignore sources of sugar in favour of human blood as a source of energy. They have limited energy reserves at emergence, and at 27°C both sexes generally die if they do not feed during night 1, 24–36 h after emergence. Food preferences during this critical period were tested by measuring responses to volatiles from honey and soiled socks, which served as surrogates for nectar-related and human-related volatiles in a wind-tunnel olfactometer. Both sexes responded more strongly to honey than to human volatiles, and given a choice, preferred honey over human volatiles. After 5 days of sugar access and maturation, males continued to prefer honey volatiles, whereas females changed behaviour, responding almost exclusively to human volatiles. Night 1 experiments also demonstrated that: (i) females previously having had sugar during the night of emergence responded more strongly to human volatiles; (ii) large-bodied mosquitoes of both sexes responded more strongly to honey than small-bodied ones; and (iii) females were equally responsive to honey in both early and late scotophase but were slightly more responsive to human volatiles in late scotophase. These results indicate that for a female’s first meal, sugar is a viable option and is preferred when nectar-related stimuli are strong. This supports field evidence that sugar-feeding is a significant component of A. gambiae female behaviour.

KW - aedes-aegypti diptera

KW - sensu-stricto diptera

KW - culex nigripalpus mosquitos

KW - blood plus sugar

KW - malaria mosquito

KW - body-size

KW - host-seeking

KW - human sweat

KW - blood/nectar choice

KW - olfactory responses

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DO - 10.1079/BER2003288

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JO - Bulletin of Entomological Research

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JF - Bulletin of Entomological Research

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