Necessity or choice: women’s migration to artisanal mining regions in eastern DRC

Marie Rose Bashwira*, Gemma van der Haar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Women have long remained invisible in representations of artisanal mining in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Based on original field data, this paper seeks to fill that gap. It shows how women come to mining sites with the hope of finding a degree of security, economic possibilities and the start of a new life. Contrary to what dominant discourses on the “resource curse” and sexual violence towards women have suggested, women may find a degree of protection in mining areas. We take the analysis beyond the “push” and “pull” factors with which migration is usually explained, to understand women’s motivation to move into mining areas as complex and changing. The study situates women’s movement to the mines within their life trajectories which are shaped by violence and various forms of insecurity. The notion of social navigation is brought in to understand how they cope with gender discrimination, challenges and risks in the mining economy. The paper shows how push and pull factors merge over time and how some women succeed in creating new sources of revenue and manage to mitigate the situation of vulnerability in which they find themselves.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-99
JournalCanadian Journal of African Studies
Issue number1
Early online date5 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • artisanal mining
  • eastern DRC
  • migration
  • mobility
  • social navigation
  • violent conflict
  • women


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