A broad-specific ELISA using one antibody preparation for the detection of gentamicin, kanamycin, and neomycin in milk is reported for the first time. For the immunization of rabbits, neamin was used as the generic hapten on the basis of the facts that it is a two-ring fragment of neomycin and, in shape and charge, it resembles parts of kanamycin and gentamicin. Neamin was linked to the preactivated carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin by EDC coupling. The specificity and sensitivity of the polyclonal antibodies for the aminoglycoside antibiotics were tested in a competitive assay using homologous and heterologous conjugates coupled by various conjugation procedures as the ELISA solid phase. In contrast to the homologous assay recognizing only neomycin, the heterologous assay could be used for the detection of the whole subclass of deoxystreptamin antibiotics in buffer and raw milk. Gentamicin, kanamycin, and neomcyin were detected in artificially contaminated undiluted raw milk (without sample pretreatment) with 50% inhibition levels at 9, 21, and 113 ng mL-1, respectively. Neomycin levels were also measured in milk samples obtained from a cow suffering from mastitis and treated with an antibiotic cocktail including neomycin. Levels below the EU maximum residue levels for deoxystreptamin antibiotics could readily be measured in this generic ELISA.
- sulfonamide antibiotics
- enzyme immunoassays