Natural occurrence of genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in Indonesian jamu and evaluation of consumer risks

Suparmi Suparmi*, Diana Widiastuti, Sebastiaan Wesseling, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The consumer risks of jamu, Indonesian traditional herbal medicines, was assessed focussing on the presence of alkenylbenzene containing botanical ingredients. Twenty-three out of 25 samples contained alkenylbenzenes at levels ranging from 3.8 to 440 μg/kg, with methyleugenol being the most frequently encountered alkenylbenzene. The estimated daily intake (EDI) resulting from jamu consumption was estimated to amount to 0.2–171 μg/kg bw/day for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 0.9–203 μg/kg bw/day when adding up all alkenylbenzenes detected, and to 0.9–551 μg/kg bw/day when expressed in methyleugenol equivalents using interim relative potency (REP) factors. The margin of exposure (MOE) values obtained were generally <10,000 indicating a priority for risk management when assuming daily consumption during a lifetime. Using Haber's rule it was estimated that two weeks consumption of these jamu only once would not raise a concern (MOE >10,000). However, when considering use for two weeks every year during a lifetime, 5 samples still raise a concern. It is concluded that the consumption of alkenylbenzene containing jamu can be of concern especially when consumed on a daily basis for longer periods of time on a regular basis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-67
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Volume118
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018

Keywords

  • Alkenylbenzenes
  • Jamu
  • Margin of exposure (MOE)
  • Risk assessment

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