Natural convection heating of liquids, with reference to sterilization of canned food

J. Hiddink

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU


<p/>In a model system the physical transport phenomena that occur during the sterilization of a canned liquid food were investigated. Flow phenomena and heat transfer were studied experimentally as well as theoretically. Experiments on flow patterns and temperature profiles revealed a boundary layer flow at the vertical sidewall, a stratified core in the upper part of the container and a perfectly mixed, unstratified region in the lower part of the container. A dimensionless correlation for the overall heat transfer coefficient from steam to liquid was determined.<p/>From the observed flow patterns and temperature profiles a simplified mathematical model was developed, with which temperature stratification in the liquid during heating could be simulated. The applicability of the simplified model for lethality calculations was briefly examined.<p/>Some attention was also paid to the effect of solid particles on heating characteristics of the container contents.<p/>Literature on the research of convection heating of liquids in closed containers was reviewed, as well as literature about the influence of temperature stratification on natural convection boundary layer flow.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Schenk, J., Promotor, External person
  • Bruin, S., Co-promotor, External person
Award date8 Oct 1975
Place of PublicationWageningen
Print ISBNs9789022005743
Publication statusPublished - 1975


  • canned products
  • canning
  • convection
  • food preservation
  • foods
  • plant products
  • sterilizing
  • thermodynamics


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