Natural choline from egg yolk phospholipids is more efficiently absorbed compared with choline bitartrate; outcomes of a randomized trial in healthy adults

Lotte Smolders*, Nicole J.W. de Wit, Michiel G.J. Balvers, Rima Obeid, Marc M.M. Vissers, Diederik Esser

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Choline is a vitamin-like essential nutrient, important throughout one’s lifespan. Therefore, choline salts are added to infant formula, supplements and functional foods. However, if choline is present in a natural form, e.g. bound to phospholipids, it may be more efficiently absorbed. The study’s aim was to evaluate if choline uptake is improved after consumption of an egg yolk phospholipid drink, containing 3 g of phospholipid bound choline, compared to a control drink with 3 g of choline bitartrate. We performed a randomized, double blind, cross-over trial with 18 participants. Plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine concentrations were determined before and up to six hours after consumption of the drinks. The plasma choline response, as determined by the incremental area under the curve, was four times higher after consumption of the egg yolk phospholipid drink compared with the control drink (p < 0.01). Similar outcomes were also observed for choline’s main metabolites, betaine (p < 0.01) and dimethylglycine (p = 0.01). Consumption of natural choline from egg yolk phospholipids improved choline absorption compared to consumption of chemically produced choline bitartrate. This information is of relevance for the food industry, instead of adding choline-salts, adding choline from egg yolk phospholipids can improve choline uptake and positively impact health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2758
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Nov 2019

Fingerprint

Egg Yolk
choline
Choline
egg yolk
Phospholipids
phospholipids
Betaine
betaine
Salts
Infant Food
salts
uptake mechanisms
Functional Food
Infant Formula
Food Industry
infant formulas
Vitamins
Cross-Over Studies
functional foods

Keywords

  • Absorption
  • Choline
  • DHA
  • Natural
  • Phospholipids

Cite this

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title = "Natural choline from egg yolk phospholipids is more efficiently absorbed compared with choline bitartrate; outcomes of a randomized trial in healthy adults",
abstract = "Choline is a vitamin-like essential nutrient, important throughout one’s lifespan. Therefore, choline salts are added to infant formula, supplements and functional foods. However, if choline is present in a natural form, e.g. bound to phospholipids, it may be more efficiently absorbed. The study’s aim was to evaluate if choline uptake is improved after consumption of an egg yolk phospholipid drink, containing 3 g of phospholipid bound choline, compared to a control drink with 3 g of choline bitartrate. We performed a randomized, double blind, cross-over trial with 18 participants. Plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine concentrations were determined before and up to six hours after consumption of the drinks. The plasma choline response, as determined by the incremental area under the curve, was four times higher after consumption of the egg yolk phospholipid drink compared with the control drink (p < 0.01). Similar outcomes were also observed for choline’s main metabolites, betaine (p < 0.01) and dimethylglycine (p = 0.01). Consumption of natural choline from egg yolk phospholipids improved choline absorption compared to consumption of chemically produced choline bitartrate. This information is of relevance for the food industry, instead of adding choline-salts, adding choline from egg yolk phospholipids can improve choline uptake and positively impact health.",
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author = "Lotte Smolders and {de Wit}, {Nicole J.W.} and Balvers, {Michiel G.J.} and Rima Obeid and Vissers, {Marc M.M.} and Diederik Esser",
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Natural choline from egg yolk phospholipids is more efficiently absorbed compared with choline bitartrate; outcomes of a randomized trial in healthy adults. / Smolders, Lotte; de Wit, Nicole J.W.; Balvers, Michiel G.J.; Obeid, Rima; Vissers, Marc M.M.; Esser, Diederik.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 11, No. 11, 2758, 13.11.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Natural choline from egg yolk phospholipids is more efficiently absorbed compared with choline bitartrate; outcomes of a randomized trial in healthy adults

AU - Smolders, Lotte

AU - de Wit, Nicole J.W.

AU - Balvers, Michiel G.J.

AU - Obeid, Rima

AU - Vissers, Marc M.M.

AU - Esser, Diederik

PY - 2019/11/13

Y1 - 2019/11/13

N2 - Choline is a vitamin-like essential nutrient, important throughout one’s lifespan. Therefore, choline salts are added to infant formula, supplements and functional foods. However, if choline is present in a natural form, e.g. bound to phospholipids, it may be more efficiently absorbed. The study’s aim was to evaluate if choline uptake is improved after consumption of an egg yolk phospholipid drink, containing 3 g of phospholipid bound choline, compared to a control drink with 3 g of choline bitartrate. We performed a randomized, double blind, cross-over trial with 18 participants. Plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine concentrations were determined before and up to six hours after consumption of the drinks. The plasma choline response, as determined by the incremental area under the curve, was four times higher after consumption of the egg yolk phospholipid drink compared with the control drink (p < 0.01). Similar outcomes were also observed for choline’s main metabolites, betaine (p < 0.01) and dimethylglycine (p = 0.01). Consumption of natural choline from egg yolk phospholipids improved choline absorption compared to consumption of chemically produced choline bitartrate. This information is of relevance for the food industry, instead of adding choline-salts, adding choline from egg yolk phospholipids can improve choline uptake and positively impact health.

AB - Choline is a vitamin-like essential nutrient, important throughout one’s lifespan. Therefore, choline salts are added to infant formula, supplements and functional foods. However, if choline is present in a natural form, e.g. bound to phospholipids, it may be more efficiently absorbed. The study’s aim was to evaluate if choline uptake is improved after consumption of an egg yolk phospholipid drink, containing 3 g of phospholipid bound choline, compared to a control drink with 3 g of choline bitartrate. We performed a randomized, double blind, cross-over trial with 18 participants. Plasma choline, betaine and dimethylglycine concentrations were determined before and up to six hours after consumption of the drinks. The plasma choline response, as determined by the incremental area under the curve, was four times higher after consumption of the egg yolk phospholipid drink compared with the control drink (p < 0.01). Similar outcomes were also observed for choline’s main metabolites, betaine (p < 0.01) and dimethylglycine (p = 0.01). Consumption of natural choline from egg yolk phospholipids improved choline absorption compared to consumption of chemically produced choline bitartrate. This information is of relevance for the food industry, instead of adding choline-salts, adding choline from egg yolk phospholipids can improve choline uptake and positively impact health.

KW - Absorption

KW - Choline

KW - DHA

KW - Natural

KW - Phospholipids

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DO - 10.3390/nu11112758

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - Nutrients

JF - Nutrients

SN - 2072-6643

IS - 11

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ER -