N -(carboxymethyl)lysine: A Review on Analytical Methods, Formation, and Occurrence in Processed Food, and Health Impact

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Abstract

Foods are often heat processed and may contain advanced glycation end products (AGE). One of the most widely studied AGE is Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML); nevertheless, knowledge on dietary CML is fragmentary. This study aimed to review current scientific knowledge on analytical methods to determine CML contents in food, chemical pathways of CML formation in food, occurrence of CML in food, and health implications of dietary exposure to CML. Chemical analyses of CML in food products are carried out by immunochemical assays and instrumental methods, but the former method may interfere with the food matrix. CML is formed in food through various chemical pathways, depending on food ingredients and processing conditions. The compound is present in many cooked foods, with relatively high concentrations in carbohydrate- rich foods and dairy products. Dietary CML is very likely to impair human health, but full cause-effect evidence is not available yet. More studies on metabolic effects and impact of food-derived CML on human health should be performed. Food production should be optimized to minimize CML concentrations, while maintaining acceptable microbiological safety and organoleptic properties of the final food product. To this end, more insights into effects of food composition and processing conditions on CML formation are necessary.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-52
Number of pages17
JournalFood Reviews International
Volume30
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • glycation end-products
  • n-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine
  • performance liquid-chromatography
  • community-dwelling women
  • maillard reaction
  • lipid-peroxidation
  • protein glycation
  • milk-products
  • treated foods
  • diet

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