In this paper we perform a multiscale analysis of the food structuring process of the expansion of starchy snack foods like keropok, which obtains a solid foam structure. In particular, we want to investigate the validity of the hypothesis of Kokini and coworkers, that expansion is optimal at the moisture content, where the glass transition and the boiling line intersect. In our analysis we make use of several tools, (1) time scale analysis from the field of physical transport phenomena, (2) the scale separation map (SSM) developed within a multiscale simulation framework of complex automata, (3) the supplemented state diagram (SSD), depicting phase transition and glass transition lines, and (4) a multiscale simulation model for the bubble expansion. Results of the time scale analysis are plotted in the SSD, and give insight into the dominant physical processes involved in expansion. Furthermore, the results of the time scale analysis are used to construct the SSM, which has aided us in the construction of the multiscale simulation model. Simulation results are plotted in the SSD. This clearly shows that the hypothesis of Kokini is qualitatively true, but has to be refined. Our results show that bubble expansion is optimal for moisture content, where the boiling line for gas pressure of 4 bars intersects the isoviscosity line of the critical viscosity 10(6) Pa.s, which runs parallel to the glass transition line.
- food materials