Multiple exocytotic markers accumulate at the sites of perifungal membrane biogenesis in arbuscular mycorrhizas

A. Genre, S. Ivanov, M. Fendrych, A. Faccio, V. Zársky, T. Bisseling, P. Bonfante

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) are symbiotic interactions established within the roots of most plants by soil fungi belonging to the Glomeromycota. The extensive accommodation of the fungus in the root tissues largely takes place intracellularly, within a specialized interface compartment surrounded by the so-called perifungal membrane, an extension of the host plasmalemma. By combining live confocal imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged proteins and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we have investigated the mechanisms leading to the biogenesis of this membrane. Our results show that pre-penetration responses and symbiotic interface construction are associated with extensive membrane dynamics. They involve the main components of the exocytotic machinery, with a major participation of the Golgi apparatus, as revealed by both TEM and in vivo GFP imaging. The labeling of known exocytosis markers, such as v-SNARE proteins of the VAMP72 family and the EXO84b subunit of the exocyst complex, allowed live imaging of the cell components involved in perifungal membrane construction, clarifying how this takes place ahead of the growing intracellular hypha. Lastly, our novel data are used to illustrate a model of membrane dynamics within the pre-penetration apparatus during AM fungal penetration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-255
JournalPlant and Cell Physiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • plant immune-responses
  • root epidermal-cells
  • medicago-truncatula
  • exocyst complex
  • transformed roots
  • fungi
  • arabidopsis
  • infection
  • reveals
  • interface

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