Multi-trait QTL analysis for agronomic and quality characters of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms)

Wei Gao*, Johan J.P. Baars, Chris Maliepaard, Richard G.F. Visser, Jinxia Zhang, Anton S.M. Sonnenberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The demand for button mushrooms of high quality is increasing. Superior button mushroom varieties require the combination of multiple traits to maximize productivity and quality. Very often these traits are correlated and should, therefore, be evaluated together rather than as single traits. In order to unravel the genetic architecture of multiple traits of Agaricus bisporus and the genetic correlations among traits, we have investigated a total of six agronomic and quality traits through multi-trait QTL analyses in a mixed-model. Traits were evaluated in three heterokaryon sets. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed among traits. For instance, earliness (ER) correlated to firmness (FM), cap color, and compost colonization, and FM correlated to scales (SC). QTLs of different traits located on the same chromosomes genetically explains the phenotypic correlations. QTL detected on chromosome 10 mainly affects three traits, i.e., ER, FM and SC. It explained 31.4 % phenotypic variation of SC on mushroom cap (heterokaryon Set 1), 14.9 % that of the FM (heterokaryon Set 3), and 14.2 % that of ER (heterokaryon Set 3). High value alleles from the wild parental line showed beneficial effects for several traits, suggesting that the wild germplasm is a valuable donor in terms of those traits. Due to the limitations of recombination pattern, we only made a start at understanding the genetic base for several agronomic and quality traits in button mushrooms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number67
JournalAMB Express
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Genetic correlations
  • Multi-trait QTL analysis
  • Phenotypic correlations
  • QTLs on the same chromosome


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