Multi-stakeholder learning and fighting on the river Scheldt

J.F. Warner, A. van Buuren

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    23 Citations (Scopus)


    This article analyzes the history of conflict and cooperation on the river Scheldt. Dutch-Flemish relations over the shared Scheldt estuary go back for centuries. Only in the past 10 years has there been intensive negotiation on a joint vision for its future which takes the form of a cooperative multi-stakeholder platform incorporating public, private and NGO representatives. Yet, relations have not always been cooperative; negotiations have been tense at times. After discussing the merits of a learning- versus a fighting-oriented analysis and capturing its dynamics in a TWINS matrix, this study proposes an approach that combines collaboration with competition, or learning and fighting. The case analysis finds that relations were often conflictual and cooperative simultaneously and warns against undue optimism about the multi-stakeholder process on the Scheldt estuary.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)419-440
    JournalInternational negotiation
    Publication statusPublished - 2009

    Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Multi-stakeholder learning and fighting on the river Scheldt'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this