We report on the influence of selected components and their mixtures on the development of the morphology during drying of single droplets and extend the results to the morphology of whole milk powder particles. Sessile single droplet drying and acoustic levitation methods were employed to study single droplet drying. The influence of carbohydrates (lactose and maltodextrin DE12) and proteins (micellar casein or whey protein) on morphology development is very different, since upon concentration protein systems will jam and undergo a colloidal glass transition, whereas carbohydrate systems will gradually increase in viscosity as a consequence of the concentration. Whey protein gives relatively rigid shells due to jamming of the “hard sphere” proteins, while casein micelles behave as “soft spheres” that can deform after jamming, which gives flexibility to the shell during drying. The influence of the carbohydrates on the final morphology was found much larger than the influence of the proteins. Caseins influenced morphology only in mixtures with lactose at higher concentrations due to its high voluminosity. Similar observations were done for whole milk, where fat appeared to have no influence. With maltodextrin the influence of the casein was again observed in the shape and smoothness of wrinkles. Both sessile and levitated droplet drying methods provide a similar and consistent view on morphology development.
Both, E. M., Nuzzo, N., Millqvist-Fureby, A., Boom, R. M., & Schutyser, M. A. I. (2018). Morphology development during single droplet drying of mixed component formulations and milk. Food Research International, 109, 448-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.04.043