Monochromatic red light during plant growth decreases the size and improves the functionality of stomata in chrysanthemum

Mehdi Seif, Sasan Aliniaeifard*, Mostafa Arab, Mahboobeh Zare Mehrjerdi, Aida Shomali, Dimitrios Fanourakis*, Tao Li, Ernst Woltering

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)


Light emitting diodes (LEDs) now enable precise light quality control. Prior to commercialisation however, the plant response to the resultant light quality regime ought to be addressed. The response was examined here in chrysanthemum by evaluating growth, chlorophyll fluorescence (before and following water deficit), as well as stomatal anatomy (density, size, pore dimensions and aperture heterogeneity) and closing ability. Plants were grown under blue (B), red (R), a mixture of R (70%) and B (RB), or white (W; 41% B, 39% intermediate spectrum, 20% R) light LEDs. Although R light promoted growth, it also caused leaf deformation (epinasty) and disturbed the photosynthetic electron transport system. The largest stomatal size was noted following growth under B light, whereas the smallest under R light. The largest stomatal density was observed under W light. Monochromatic R light stimulated both the rate and the degree of stomatal closure in response to desiccation compared with the other light regimes. We conclude that stomatal size is mainly controlled by the B spectrum, whereas a broader spectral range is important for determining stomatal density. Monochromatic R light enhanced stomatal ability to regulate water loss upon desiccation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number515
JournalFunctional Plant Biology
Issue number5
Early online date18 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • blue light
  • Chrysanthemum morifolium
  • indoor horticulture
  • LED
  • light emitting diode
  • light quality
  • O-J-I-P-transient
  • red light
  • stomatal anatomy
  • stomatal closing ability
  • stomatal size
  • white light


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