Depression and aggression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are 2 of the most severe and prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Altered monoaminergic neurotransmitter system functioning has been implicated in both NPS, although their neurochemical etiology remains to be elucidated. Left frozen hemispheres of 40 neuropathologically confirmed AD patients were regionally dissected. Dichotomization based on depression and aggression scores resulted in depressed/nondepressed (AD+ D/AD- D) and aggressive/nonaggressive (AD+ Agr/AD- Agr) groups. Concentrations of dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), (nor)epinephrine ((N)E), and respective metabolites were determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly lower 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and higher homovanillic acid levels were observed in Brodmann area (BA) 9 and 10 of AD+ D compared with AD- D. In AD+ Agr, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in BA9, 5-HIAA to 5-HT ratios in BA11, and MHPG, NE, and 5-HIAA levels in the hippocampus were significantly decreased compared with AD- Agr. These findings indicate that brain region-specific altered monoamines and metabolites may contribute to the occurrence of depression and aggression in AD.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Neurobiology of aging|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Dec 2014|
- Alzheimer's disease
- Biogenic amines and metabolites
- Brain tissue
- Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS)