Monkey orange fruit juice improves the nutritional quality of a maize-based diet

Ruth T. Ngadze, Anita R. Linnemann, Vincenzo Fogliano, Ruud Verkerk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


This paper studied the nutritional impact of the use of juice from Strychnos cocculoides (monkey orange) in a maize-based porridge. Monkey orange juice is traditionally used to supplement maize porridge - a staple breakfast cereal especially for vulnerable groups. Monkey orange fruits contain high amounts of micronutrients and phenolic compounds and are widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The valuable components can be efficiently extracted by traditional and pectinase maceration techniques. The bioaccessibility of minerals and main phenolic compounds in maize porridge (5 g maize meal) supplemented by monkey orange juice (100 ml) were assessed after in-vitro digestion together with the kinetics of starch degradation. Caffeic and protocatechuic acids exceeded 100%, and chlorogenic acid 81% bioaccessibility after simulated intestinal digestion. Rutin was undetected after the simulated intestinal phase due to precipitation in the pellet. In-vitro bioaccessibility of minerals ranged from 12 to 62% in monkey orange enriched porridge. A 50–70% decrease of starch hydrolysis was observed at the end of the simulated intestinal digestion of monkey orange maize porridge confirming the known potential of phenolic compounds to decrease the glycaemic index of starch-rich foods. Consequently monkey orange juice appeared a suitable ingredient to enrich staple maize porridge thanks to its micronutrients and health benefit potential. Similar relationships of other fruits and starchy foods warrant study as a means to improve the nutritional quality of the diets of malnourished populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)870-877
JournalFood Research International
Early online date8 Sept 2018
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019


  • Bioaccessibility
  • Glycaemic index
  • in-vitro solubility
  • Maize porridge
  • Minerals
  • Phenolic compounds
  • Strychnos cocculoides


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