Reduction of starch digestibility in starchy foods is beneficial for lowering the risks for major non-communicable diseases. Preserving cell integrity is known to delay starch digestibility in flour but its effect in bread is not clear. In this study, the effect of increasing particle size on in vitro starch digestibility of durum wheat flour, dough, and bread was investigated. Cell integrity was retained during bread processing for medium (1000 µm-1800 µm), and large (>1800 µm) flour, whereas in small one cell walls were mostly damaged (<350 µm). In vitro starch digestibility of flour decreased increasing particle size, but no difference was found in dough. In bread, instead, a modest decrease of starch digestibility for the bread made by large particle was observed, likely due to its dense structure. In conclusion, a high particle size could limit starch digestibility in durum wheat flour but not in bread.
- Bread quality
- Confocal laser scanning microscopy
- In vitro starch digestibility
- Intact cells
- Particle size
- Wheat durum