Monitoring of the booster biocide dichlofluanid in water and marine sediment of Greek marinas

C. Hamwijk, A. Schouten, E.M. Foekema, J.C. Ravenberg, M.T. Collombon, K. Schmidt, M. Kugler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


Dichlofluanid (N-dichlorofluoromethylthio-N¿-dimethyl-N-phenylsulphamide) is used as booster biocide in antifouling paints. The occurrence of dichlofluanid and its metabolite DMSA (N¿-dimethyl-N-phenyl-sulphamide) was monitored in seawater and marine sediment from three Greek marinas. Seawater and sediment samples were collected at three representative positions and one suspected hotspot in each marina and shipped to the laboratory for chemical analysis. As part of the project, an analytical method had been developed and validated. Furthermore, some additional experiments were carried out to investigate the potential contribution of paint particle bound dichlofluanid on the total concentration in the sediment. As expected, given its known high hydrolytic degradation rate, no detectable concentrations of dichlofluanid were measured in any of the seawater samples. DMSA was detected in seawater samples at very low concentrations varying from
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1316-1324
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • antifouling pesticides
  • mass-spectrometry
  • extraction
  • products
  • uk


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