The chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence imaging technique was applied to cashew seedlings inoculated with the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae to assess any disturbances in the photosynthetic apparatus of the plants before the onset of visual symptoms. Two-month-old cashew plants were inoculated with mycelium of L. theobromae isolate Lt19 or Lt32. Dark-adapted and light-acclimated whole plants or previously labelled, single, mature leaf from each plant were evaluated weekly for Chl fluorescence parameters. From 21 to 28 days, inoculation with both isolates resulted in the significantly lower maximal photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) than those for control samples, decreasing from values of 0.78 to 0.62. In contrast, the time response of the measured fluorescence transient curve from dark-acclimated plants increased in both whole plants and single mature leaves in inoculated plants compared with controls. The Fv/Fm images clearly exhibited photosynthetic perturbations 14 days after inoculation before any visual symptoms appeared. Additionally, decays in the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and photochemical quenching coefficient were also observed over time. However, nonphotochemical quenching increased during the evaluation period. We conclude that Fv/Fm images are the effective way of detecting early metabolic perturbations in the photosynthetic apparatus of cashew seedlings caused by gummosis in both whole plants and single leaves and could be potentially employed in larger-scale screening systems.
- plant-pathogen interactions
- a fluorescence
- photosynthetic responses
Muniz, C. R., Freire, F. C. O., Viana, F. M. P., Cardoso, J. E., Sousa, C. A. F., Guedes, M. I. F., ... Jalink, H. (2014). Monitoring cashew seedlings during interactions with the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Photosynthetica, 52(4), 529-537. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-014-0061-6