Molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from humans, animals, food and the enviroment: a pooled analysis

Alejandro Dorado-Garcia, J.H. Smid, Wilfrid Van Pelt, M.J.M. Bonten, A.C. Fluit, Gerrita van den Bunt, J.A. Wagenaar, J. Hordijk, C.M. Dierikx, K.T. Veldman, A.A. de Koeijer, W. Dohmen, H. Schmitt, A. Liakopoulos, Ewa Pacholewicz, T.J.G.M. Lam, Annet Velthuis, A. Heuvelink, Maaike Gonggrijp, E. van DuijkerenA.H.A.M. van Hoek, A.N. de Roda Husman, H. Blaak, A.H. Havelaar, D.J. Mevius, D.J.J. Heederik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains unclear.
Objectives: To quantify molecular similarities between different reservoirs as a first step towards risk attribution.
Methods: Pooled data on ESBL/AmpC-EC isolates were recovered from 35 studies in the Netherlands comprising.27 000 samples, mostly obtained between 2005 and 2015. Frequency distributions of ESBL/AmpC genes from 5808 isolates and replicons of ESBL/AmpC-carrying plasmids from 812 isolates were compared across 22 reservoirs through proportional similarity indices (PSIs) and principal component analyses (PCAs).
Results: Predominant ESBL/AmpC genes were identified in each reservoir. PCAs and PSIs revealed close human–animal ESBL/AmpC gene similarity between human farming communities and their animals (broilers and pigs) (PSIs from 0.8 to 0.9). Isolates from people in the general population had higher similarities to those from human clinical settings, surface and sewage water and wild birds (0.7–0.8), while similarities to livestock or food reservoirs were lower (0.3–0.6). Based on rarefaction curves, people in the general population had more diversity in ESBL/AmpC genes and plasmid replicon types than those in other reservoirs.
Conclusions: Our ‘One Health’ approach provides an integrated evaluation of the molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-EC from numerous sources. The analysis showed distinguishable ESBL/AmpC-EC transmission cycles in different hosts and failed to demonstrate a close epidemiological linkage of ESBL/AmpC genes and plasmid replicon types between livestock farms and people in the general population.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-347
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018

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