Modeling methods allow the identification and analysis of determinants of reactivity and specificity in enzymes. The reaction between glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) is widely used as a standard activity assay for glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). It is important to understand the causes of differences between catalytic GST isoenzymes and the effects of mutations and genetic polymorphisms. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations have been performed here to investigate the addition of the glutathione anion to CDNB in the wild-type M1-1 GST isoenzyme from rat and in three single point mutant (Tyr6Phe, Tyr115Phe, and Met108Ala) M1-1 GST enzymes. We have developed a specifically parameterized QM/MM method (AM1-SRP/CHARMM22) to model this reaction by fitting to experimental heats of formation and ionization potentials. Free energy profiles were obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of the reaction using umbrella sampling and weighted histogram analysis techniques. The reaction in solution has also been simulated and is compared to the enzymatic reaction. The free energies are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Overall the results of the present study show that QM/MM reaction pathway analysis provides detailed insight into the chemistry of GST and can be used to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of specific mutations on this catalytic process.
- nucleophilic aromatic-substitution
- potential free-energy
- mu class
- dynamics calculations
- isoenzyme 3-3