Petri disease and esca are very destructive grapevine decline diseases that occur in most countries where grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is cultivated. Phaeoacremonium species are among the principal hyphomycetes associated with symptoms of the two diseases, producing a range of enzymes and phytotoxic metabolites. The present study compared the phylogeny of a global collection of 118 Phaeoacremonium isolates from grapevines, in order to gain a better understanding of their involvement in Petri disease and esca. Phylogenetic analyses of combined DNA sequence datasets of actin and ß-tubulin genes revealed the presence of 13 species of Phaeoacremonium isolated from esca diseased grapevines. Phaeoacremonium aleophilum was the most frequently isolated species with an incidence up to 80 % of all isolates investigated. Species previously described mainly as human pathogenic species, namely Pm. alvesii, Pm. griseorubrum and Pm. rubrigenum are newly reported on grapevine from Turkey, Italy and Croatia, respectively. Phaeoacremonium viticola and Pm. scotyli represent new records for Italy, as well as Pm. mortoniae for Hungary and Croatia. In addition, four new species of Phaeoacremonium, namely Pm. croatiense, Pm. hungaricum, Pm. sicilianum and Pm. tuscanum are newly described from grapevine based on morphology, cultural characteristics, as well as molecular phylogeny.
- primer sets