Genetic variability of Aspergillus ochraceus was examined at the DNA level. Based on the HaeIII-BglII generated mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles, most isolates could be classified into two distinct groups. These two groups could also be distinguished by the random amplified polymorphic DNA technique, and with telomeric PCR amplifications. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the intergenic transcribed spacer region of some of the strains resulted in a dendrogram with the same topology as that based on mitochondrial DNA and amplified DNA data. None of the isolates with type 2 mtDNA profiles produce ochratoxins. Some strains (e.g., A. ochraceus ICMP 939) displayed strain-specific mitochondrial DNA patterns, and their amplified DNA profiles were also different from all other A. ochraceus strains examined.