Lipopolysaccharydes (LPS) are responsible for the intestinal inflammatory reaction, as they may disrupt tight junctions and induce cytokines (CKs) secretion. Osthole has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects, thus its anti-inflammatory potential in the LPS-treated Caco-2 cell line as well as in Caco-2/THP-1 and Caco-2/macrophages co-cultures was investigated. In brief, Caco-2 cells and co-cultures were incubated with LPS to induce an inflammatory reaction, after which osthole (150–450 ng/mL) was applied to reduce this effect. After 24 h, the level of secreted CKs and changes in gene expression were examined. LPS significantly increased the levels of IL-1β,-6,-8, and TNF-α, while osthole reduced this effect in a concentration-dependent manner, with the most significant decrease when a 450 ng/mL dose was applied (p < 0.0001). A similar trend was observed in changes in gene expression, with the significant osthole efficiency at a concentration of 450 ng/µL for IL1R1 and COX-2 (p < 0.01) and 300 ng/µL for NF-κB (p < 0.001). Osthole increased Caco-2 monolayer permeability, thus if it would ever be considered as a potential drug for minimizing intestinal inflammatory symptoms, its safety should be confirmed in extended in vitro and in vivo studies.
- Gene expression
- Pro-inflammatory cytokine
- Transepithelial electrical resistance