Coffee is a daily consumed drink in most Western countries and is the primary source of caffeine. Caffeine intake seems to be beneficial for cognitive function on the short term, however results are controversial and longitudinal information on this association is lacking. Objective(s): This study investigated whether coffee consumption is associated with 10- year age-related cognitive decline in elderly men. Methods: Seven hundred and seven healthy men born between 1900 and 1920 of Finland, Italy and the Netherlands participated in this longitudinal study between 1990 and 2000. Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). The maximum score on the MMSE is 30 points, with a higher score indicating better cognitive performance. Coffee consumption was estimated in cups per day. A mixed longitudinal random coefficient model was used to determine the association between baseline coffee consumption and 10-year cognitive decline. Adjustments were made for the potential confounding factors age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking status, serum cholesterol, cohort, anti-hypertensive drug use, anticoagulant use, body mass index, physical activity and baseline cognitive functioning (if applicable). Results: Cognitive functioning did not differ between coffee consumers and non-consumers in 1990. However, men who did not drink coffee had a 10 year cognitive decline of 2.5 points (8.3%), which is stronger (p <0.05) than the cognitive decline of men who did drink one to four cups of coffee a day. Men who consumed three cups of coffee a day had the least cogllitive decline of 0.6 points (2.0%), which was 4.2 times less rapid than men who did not drink coffee (p <0.001). The cognitive decline of men who consumed more than four cups of coffee per day did not differ from men who did not drink coffee. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that drinking 1-4 cups of coffee a day may reduce cognitive decline in elderly men. However, confirmation by other longitudinal studies is necessary.
|Journal||Neurobiology of aging|
|Publication status||Published - 2004|