In 2006, mangrove forests covered less than 10% of the 1100 km2 Mahakam delta which was virgin until 1930. This regression was mainly due to their transformation to shrimp ponds. Pond size varied between 3 and 30 ha but the effective pond size was much smaller than the area between the dikes as only the soil needed to make the dikes was excavated while the central plateau was left intact. Shrimp production is extensive, but production of 200 to 300 kg/ha in the first year gradually declined on average to 50 kg/ha/yr as only one crop in four is successful. Due to declining productivity as a result of deteriorating quality of bottom and water, and outbreaks of disease such as white spot virus, the area covered by ponds gradually decreased. Most pond farmers, caretakers and workers have little alternative employment opportunities. Improving the shrimp production is important to provide farmers with sustainable livelihoods and maintain biodiversity elsewhere (Bush et al. 2010, Ecology and Society, 15(2),15). In the Philippines where mangrove cutting was prohibited since 1982 (Primavera, 1997 Aquac Res 28,815-827), farmers developed the so-called green-water technology (GW). Tendencia et al (2011, Aquaculture 311(1-4),87-93) showed that the presence of mangrove in the water source is a disease preventing factor. In Mahakam delta the Fisheries Services tested a farming system associating mangrove and extensive shrimp ponds. To test whether a production system integrating both shrimp culture using GW and mangrove forestry is a financially feasible alternative for the extensive system in the Mahakam delta we applied economic modelling. The baselines used were farms using GW in the Philippines (Bosma et al. AFAF 2011) and the extensive system in the Mahakam (Bunting et al. 2012, Aquac Manag & Econ), both in 2009. Without accounting for livelihood contributions from collecting in close to 8 ha mangrove, nor its cultural services, the associated mangrove GW aquaculture system more than doubled farmers income compared to the extensive system (Table). Compared to the extensive system the associated mangrove GW shrimp farming delivered 20 times more shrimp, thus dramatically increasing the contribution to the national economy without accounting its ecosystems services, e.g. fish breeding and nursing grounds. Disclaimer: Preparation of this paper was supported by the EC INCO-DEV MANGROVE project with funds from by the European Communitys Sixth Framework Programme [Contract: INCO-CT-2005-003697] and by the RESCOPAR project funded by the INREF program of Wageningen University This publication reflects the authors views and the European Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.
|Title of host publication||Global Aquaculture: Securing our future. Prague 1-5 september, AQUA-2012|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|
|Event||Global Aquaculture: securing our future. Prague 1-5 september, AQUA-2012 - |
Duration: 1 Sep 2012 → 5 Sep 2012
|Conference||Global Aquaculture: securing our future. Prague 1-5 september, AQUA-2012|
|Period||1/09/12 → 5/09/12|