Modeling the surface-atmosphere exchange of ammonia

R.J. Wichink Kruit, W.A.J. van Pul, F.J. Slauter, M. van den Broek, E. Nemitz, M.A. Sutton, M.C. Krol, A.A.M. Holtslag

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37 Citations (Scopus)


New parameterizations for surfaceeatmosphere exchange of ammonia are presented for application in atmospheric transport models and compared with parameterizations of the literature. The new parameterizations are based on a combination of the results of three years of ammonia flux measurements over a grassland canopy (dominated by Lolium perenne and Poa trivialis) near Wageningen, the Netherlands and existing parameterizations from literature. First, a model for the surfaceeatmosphere exchange of ammonia that includes the concentration at the external leaf surface is derived and validated. Second, a parameterization for the stomatal compensation point (expressed as Gs, the ratio of [NH4+]/[H+] in the leaf apoplast) that accounts for the observed seasonal variation is derived from the measurements. The new, temperature-dependent Gs describes the observed seasonal behavior very well. It is noted, however, that senescence of plants and field management practices will also influence the seasonal variation of Gs on a shorter timescale. Finally, a relation that links Gs to the atmospheric pollution level of the location through the ‘long-term’ NH3 concentration in the air is proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)945-957
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • intensively managed grassland
  • nh3 deposition processes
  • oilseed rape plants
  • compensation point
  • dry deposition
  • seminatural vegetation
  • agricultural grassland
  • gradient measurements
  • apoplastic nh4+
  • lolium-perenne

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