Modeling the effect of ethanol vapor on the germination time of Penicillium chrysogenum

P. Dantigny, I. Tchobanov, M. Bensoussan, M.H. Zwietering

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26 Citations (Scopus)


The influence of ethanol vapor on germination of Penicillium chrysogenum was determined on yeast nitrogen base plus glucose agar medium at 25°C. Ethanol vapors were generated by 0 to 6% (wt/wt) ethanol solutions at the bottom of hermetically closed petri dishes. The logistic equation was used to describe the data as the percentage of germination versus time and to estimate the germination time. The effect of ethanol concentration on germination time was described by a new reparameterized equation, resulting in an estimated limiting ethanol concentration of 4.3%. Up to 3% ethanol, all spores germinated, and the germination time increased with increasing ethanol concentration. At 3.5 and 4%, some spores formed abnormal germ tubes and others were inhibited at the swelling stage. The inhibiting effect of ethanol was reversible under these experimental conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1203-1207
JournalJournal of Food Protection
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • shelf-life extension
  • clostridium-botulinum
  • conidial germination
  • water activity
  • growth-rate
  • temperature
  • spoilage
  • bread
  • ph


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