Modeling nutrients in Lake Dianchi (China) and its watershed

Xiaolin Li, Annette B.G. Janssen, Jeroen J.M. de Klein, Carolien Kroeze, Maryna Strokal, Lin Ma, Yi Zheng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Lake Dianchi suffered from severe eutrophication for decades. Past efforts to reduce the eutrophication were not very effective. The objective of this study is to improve our understanding of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings and to analyze to what extent they exceed critical nutrient loadings of Lake Dianchi. To this end, we applied the nutrient MARINA model and the ecosystem model PCLake. Results show that river export of dissolved N and P was high in 2012. About 6 209 ton of total dissolved N (TDN) was exported to the lake (i.e. 23.6 kg ha−1), of which more than two-thirds in the form of dissolved inorganic N. For total dissolved P, this export was about 413 ton (i.e. 1.6 kg ha−1), of which 75% dissolved inorganic P. Urban sewage is a major source of nutrients in rivers in the northern sub-basins. In southern sub-basins, agriculture is an important source of both N and P, while P mining and processing is a major source of dissolved inorganic P. Nutrient inputs to the lake are particularly high from urbanization sub-basins draining into the northern part of the lake (Caohai). Critical nutrient loadings for the northern part of the lake (Caohai) are 0.34 mg P m−2d−1 (3.06 mg N m−2d−1) and for the southern part (Waihai) 0.38 mg P m−2d−1 (3.42 mg N m−2d−1). Actual loadings exceed the critical nutrient loadings by 82 times and 17 times of Caohai and Waihai, respectively. Our study illustrates how linking MARINA with PCLake helped to quantify the causes of lake eutrophication and to identify critical loadings for N and P in the lake. Our study can assist local authorities to formulate management options to reduce nutrient pollution in Lake Dianchi in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-59
Number of pages12
JournalAgricultural Water Management
Volume212
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019

Keywords

  • Critical loading
  • MARINA nutrient model
  • Mining
  • PCLake ecosystem model
  • River export of nutrients

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