Model-based Geostatistical Interpolation of the annual number of ozone exceedance days in the Netherlands

J. van de Kassteele, A.L.M. Dekkers, G.J.M. Velders, A. Stein

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1 Citation (Scopus)


This paper discusses two model-based geostatistical methods for spatial interpolation of the number of days that ground level ozone exceeds a threshold level. The first method assumes counts to approximately follow a Poisson distribution, while the second method assumes a log-Normal distribution. First, these methods were compared using an extensive data set covering the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. Second, the focus was placed on only the Netherlands, where only a small data set was used. Bayesian techniques were used for parameter estimation and interpolation. Parameter estimates are comparable due to the log-link in both models. Incorporating data from adjacent countries improves parameter estimation. The Poisson model predicts more accurately (maximum kriging standard deviation of 2.16 compared to 2.69) but shows smoother surfaces than the log-Normal model. The log-Normal approach ensures a better representation of the observations and gives more realistic patterns (an RMSE of 2.26 compared to 2.44). Model-based geostatistical procedures are useful to interpolate limited data sets of counts of ozone exceedance days. Spatial risk estimates using existing prior information can be made relating health effects to environmental thresholds
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-183
JournalStochastic environmental research and risk assessment
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • linear mixed models


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