Mixture Toxicity of Herbicides with Dissimilar Modes of Action to Myriophyllum spicatum

Abegail Fusilero*, Jasmine De Rop, Pieter Spanoghe, Gertie H.P. Arts, Karel A.C. De Schamphelaere

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Considering the vital role of rooted macrophytes in the aquatic ecosystem, validating assumptions on the interactive effects of herbicides with different modes of action at an environmentally relevant mixture ratio is necessary. We investigated the effects of diflufenican (a carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor) and iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium (IMS; an acetolactate synthase inhibitor) in a 14-day growth inhibition experiment with Myriophyllum spicatum, wherein single compounds and their combination were tested in parallel (n = 84). The assessment was done using three different methods: significance testing, model deviation ratio (MDR), and mixture interaction factor (MIF). Interactions relative to both concentration addition and independent action were assessed via significance testing. This revealed that diflufenican and IMS acted antagonistically relative to both models for fresh weight and total shoot length (p < 0.05) and that there was slight synergism for the number of side shoots (p < 0.001) relative to concentration addition. The MDR and MIF can only assess interactions relative to the concentration addition model. According to MDR, the mixture appeared to show no interaction (neither antagonistic nor synergistic), whereas the MIF method revealed that the compounds acted antagonistically for fresh weight and that there was a slight synergism for total shoot length and number of side shoots. We conclude that inferences about mixture toxicity interactions are method- and endpoint-dependent, which can have implications for regulatory mixtures assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2022;00:1–12.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2209-2220
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Issue number9
Early online date14 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • Diflufenican
  • Herbicide
  • Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium
  • Mixture
  • Myriophyllum
  • Risk assessment


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