Mitochondrial DNA signature for range-wide populations of Bicyclus anynana suggests a rapid expansion from recent refugia

M.A. de Jong, N. Wahlberg, M. van Eijk, P.M. Brakefield, B.J. Zwaan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study investigates the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of the afrotropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Samples from six wild populations covering most of the species range from Uganda to South Africa were compared for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit gene (COI). Molecular diversity indices show overall high mtDNA diversity for the populations, but low nucleotide divergence between haplotypes. Our results indicate relatively little geographic population structure among the southern populations, especially given the extensive distributional range and an expectation of limited gene flow between populations. We implemented neutrality tests to assess signatures of recent historical demographic events. Tajima's D test and Fu's FS test both suggested recent population growth for the populations. The results were only significant for the southernmost populations when applying Tajima's D, but Fu's FS indicated significant deviations from neutrality for all populations except the one closest to the equator. Based on our own findings and those from pollen and vegetation studies, we hypothesize that the species range of B. anynana was reduced to equatorial refugia during the last glacial period, and that the species expanded southwards during the past 10.000 years. These results provide crucial background information for studies of phenotypic and molecular adaptation in wild populations of B. anynana
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere21385
Number of pages5
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume6
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Keywords

  • lepidoptera
  • butterflies
  • plasticity
  • biology
  • systematics
  • haplotypes
  • neutrality
  • evolution
  • selection
  • markers

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