The aim of our study was to explore the possibilities to reduce N2O emissions from intensively managed dairy farming systems using a system analysis and literature data. Intensively managed grasslands are the dominant source of N2O emission in dairy farming systems. There are several measures to mitigate N2O emission from these grasslands, categorized in three broad groups: improved N fertilizer management, improved grassland management and improved management of livestock production. A reduction of N2O emission from intensively managed dairy farming systems up to 70% may be achieved through implementation of a package of measures to improve nitrogen (N) management, including refined N fertilizer application, reduction of NH3 volatilization, restricted grazing, use of maize silage, and the use of clover as an alternative for N fertilizer.
Velthof, G. L., van Beusichem, M. L., & Oenema, O. (1998). Mitigation of nitrous oxide emission from dairy farming systems. Environmental Pollution, 102(1), 173-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(98)80030-4