Milling characteristics and distribution of phytic acid and zind in long-, medium- and short-grain rice

J. Liang, K. Tsuji, K. Nakano, M.J.R. Nout, R.J. Hamer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

100 Citations (Scopus)


Milling and polishing are important operations during the production of white rice. The degree of milling and polishing has a significant effect on the nutritional aspects of white rice, especially on minerals, due to a non-uniform distribution of nutrients in the kernel. Information on the distribution of nutrients in rice will greatly help in understanding the effect of milling and aid in designing procedures that improve technological and sensory properties of rice while retaining its essential nutrients as much as possible. In this study, three kernel shapes (short-, medium- and long-grain) of rice were selected for the study of milling characteristics and distribution of zinc (Zn) and phytic acid using abrasive milling and X-ray fluorescent microscope imaging approaches. Milling characteristics differed with kernel shapes and cultivars. Mass loss (y, %) correlated well with milling duration (x, s) and was fitted using a polynomial equation of y=ax2+bx+c (R2=0.99). Different kernel shapes of rice resulted in different patterns. Breakage in milling increased with longer duration of milling. The relation between breakage (y, %) and milling duration (x, s) fitted the exponential equation y=aebx. Levels of phytic acid, as well as Zn, decreased with prolonged milling. Phytic acid decreased at a higher rate than Zn. The analysis of different milling runs showed that the concentration of phytic acid decreased from the surface region inward, whereas X-ray fluorescent images indicated that the highest concentration of phosphorus was at the interface of the embryo and perisperm. Our results help in understanding the milling characteristics of different rice cultivars. Understanding these characteristics offers opportunities to optimize milling procedures for maximum phytate removal at minimum mineral losses and yield loss
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-91
JournalJournal of Cereal Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • milled rice
  • nutrient content
  • protein-content
  • parboiled rice
  • japonica rice
  • brown rice
  • kernel
  • phosphorus
  • minerals
  • iron


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