Migraine Associated with Gastrointestinal Disorders: Review of the Literature and Clinical Implications

S. van Hemert, A.C. Breedveld, J.M.P. Rovers, J.P.W. Vermeiden, B.J.M. Witteman, M. Smits, N.M. de Roos

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101 Citations (Scopus)


Recent studies suggest that migraine may be associated with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel syndrome, and celiac disease. Here, an overview of the associations between migraine and GI disorders is presented, as well as possible mechanistic links and clinical implications. People who regularly experience GI symptoms have a higher prevalence of headaches, with a stronger association with increasing headache frequency. Children with a mother with a history of migraine are more likely to have infantile colic. Children with migraine are more likely to have experienced infantile colic compared to controls. Several studies demonstrated significant associations between migraine and celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and IBS. Possible underlying mechanisms of migraine and GI diseases could be increased gut permeability and inflammation. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate these mechanisms further in migraine patients. These mechanisms also give a rationale to investigate the effects of the use of pre- and probiotics in migraine patients
Original languageEnglish
Article number241
Number of pages7
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Celiac disease
  • Colic
  • Gastroparesis
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Leaky gut
  • Migraine
  • Probiotics


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