Three configurations have been developed to improve the understanding of structural element interactions in food material during deformation. The three configurations combine an inverted confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and a cell that can apply to the sample a specific deformation: continuous shear, linear oscillatory shear and biaxial extension (compression). In the continuous shear and oscillatory shear configurations (OSCs), a zero-velocity plane is created in the sample by moving two plates in opposite direction, maintaining stable observation conditions of the structural behaviour under deformation. The OSC allows simultaneous application of CSLM and diffusing wave spectroscopy, a multiple light scattering technique. The third configuration (compression configuration) allows observation at a stagnation point during rheometric measurements. The configurations accept semi-liquid products (dressing, sauces, dairy products, etc.) for investigations in area such as aggregation, gelation, interactions at interface, coalescence, break-up.
- diffusing-wave spectroscopy