Microbiome dynamics of human epidermis following skin barrier disruption

P.L. Zeeuwen, J. te Boekhorst, E.H. van den Bogaard, H.D. de Koning, P.M. van de Kerkhof, D.M. Saulnier, I.I. van Swam, S.A.F.T. van Hijum, M. Kleerebezem, J. Schalkwijk, H.M. Timmerman

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176 Citations (Scopus)


Background - Recent advances in sequencing technologies have enabled metagenomic analyses of many human body sites. Several studies have catalogued the composition of bacterial communities of the surface of human skin, mostly under static conditions in healthy volunteers. Skin injury will disturb the cutaneous homeostasis of the host tissue and its commensal microbiota, but the dynamics of this process have not been studied before. Here we analyzed the microbiota of the surface layer and the deeper layers of the stratum corneum of normal skin, and we investigated the dynamics of recolonization of skin microbiota following skin barrier disruption by tape stripping as a model of superficial injury. Results - We observed gender differences in microbiota composition and showed that bacteria are not uniformly distributed in the stratum corneum. Phylogenetic distance analysis was employed to follow microbiota development during recolonization of injured skin. Surprisingly, the developing neo-microbiome at day 14 was more similar to that of the deeper stratum corneum layers than to the initial surface microbiome. In addition, we also observed variation in the host response towards superficial injury as assessed by the induction of antimicrobial protein expression in epidermal keratinocytes. Conclusions - We suggest that the microbiome of the deeper layers, rather than that of the superficial skin layer, may be regarded as the host indigenous microbiome. Characterization of the skin microbiome under dynamic conditions, and the ensuing response of the microbial community and host tissue, will shed further light on the complex interaction between resident bacteria and epidermis
Original languageEnglish
Article numberR101
JournalGenome Biology
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • atopic-dermatitis patients
  • molecular analysis
  • wound microbiota
  • bacterial biota
  • gut microbiota
  • diversity
  • psoriasis
  • disease
  • expression
  • defense


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