Metabolic responses to mild cold acclimation in type 2 diabetes patients

Carlijn M.E. Remie, Michiel P.B. Moonen, Kay H.M. Roumans, Emmani B.M. Nascimento, Anne Gemmink, Bas Havekes, Gert Schaart, Esther Kornips, Peter J. Joris, Vera B. Schrauwen-Hinderling, Joris Hoeks, Sander Kersten, Matthijs K.C. Hesselink, Esther Phielix, Wouter D. van Marken Lichtenbelt, Patrick Schrauwen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Mild cold acclimation for 10 days has been previously shown to markedly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we show in a single-arm intervention study ( ID: NL4469/NTR5711) in nine patients with type 2 diabetes that ten days of mild cold acclimation (16–17 °C) in which observable, overt shivering was prevented, does not result in improved insulin sensitivity, postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism or intrahepatic lipid content and only results in mild effects on overnight fasted fat oxidation, postprandial energy expenditure and aortic augmentation index. The lack of marked metabolic effects in this study is associated with a lack of self-reported shivering and a lack of upregulation of gene expression of muscle activation or muscle contraction pathways in skeletal muscle and suggests that some form of muscle contraction is needed for beneficial effects of mild cold acclimation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1516
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 9 Mar 2021

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